Lymphoma is a group of blood cell tumors that develop from lymphocytes. It is sometimes used to refer to just the cancerous ones rather than all tumors. Symptoms may include: enlarged lymph nodes that are not generally painful, fevers, sweats, itchiness, weight loss, and feeling tired, among others.
The two main types are Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), with two others, multiple myeloma and immunoproliferative diseases, also included by the World Health Organization (WHO) within the category. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma makes up about 90% of cases and includes a large number of subtypes. Lymphomas are part of the broader group of neoplasms called tumors of the hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues.
Risk factors for HL include: infection with Epstein–Barr virus and having others in the family with the disease. Risk factors for NHL include: autoimmune diseases, HIV/AIDS, infection with human T-lymphotropic virus, eating a large amount of meat and fat, immunosuppressant medications, and some pesticides. They are usually diagnosed by blood, urine, or bone marrow testing. A biopsy of a lymph node may also be useful. Medical imaging then may be done to determine if and where the cancer has spread. This spread can occur to many other organs, including: lungs, liver, and brain.
The overall five-year survival rate in the United States for HL is 85%, while that for NHL is 69%. Worldwide, lymphomas developed in 566,000 people in 2012 and caused 305,000 deaths. They make up 3–4% of all cancers, making them as a group the seventh-most common form. In children they are the third most common cancer.
Treatment may involve some combination of chemotherapy, radiation therapy, targeted therapy, and surgery. In NHL, the blood may become so thick with protein that a procedure called plasmapheresis is needed. Watchful waiting may be appropriate for certain types. Some types are curable.
Leukemia is a group of cancers that usually begins in the bone marrow and results in high numbers of abnormal white blood cells. These white blood cells are not fully developed and are called blasts or leukemia cells. The exact cause of leukemia is unknown. Different kinds of leukemia are believed to have different causes. Both inherited and environmental (non-inherited) factors are believed to be involved. Risk factors include smoking, ionizing radiation, some chemicals (such as benzene), prior chemotherapy, and Down syndrome. People with a family history of leukemia are also at higher risk.
There are four main types of leukemia: acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), acute myeloid leukemia (AML), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), as well as a number of less common types. Leukemia is part of a broader group of neoplasms which affect the blood, bone marrow, and lymphoid system, known as tumors of the hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues.
The average five-year survival rate is 57% in the United States. In children under 15, the five-year survival is greater than 60 to 85%, depending on the type of leukemia. In people with acute leukemia who are cancer-free after five years, the cancer is unlikely to return. In 2012 leukemia developed in 352,000 people globally and caused 265,000 deaths. It is the most common type of cancer in children, with three quarters of leukemia cases in children being ALL. However, about 90% of all leukemias are diagnosed in adults, with AML and CLL being most common in adults
Treatment may involve some combination of chemotherapy, radiation therapy, targeted therapy, and bone marrow transplant, in addition to supportive care and palliative care as needed. Diagnosis is typically by blood tests or bone marrow biopsy.
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